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Forest Chemistry

Degree course FOREST AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Curriculum Curriculum unico
Learnings UNICO
Academic Year 2018/2019

Module: PLANT MOLECULAR PHYSIOLOGY

Degree course FOREST AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Curriculum Curriculum unico
Learnings UNICO
Academic Year 2018/2019
ECTS 6
Scientific Disciplinary Sector AGR/13
Year Second year
Time unit Second semester
Class hours 60
Educational activity Formative educational activities

Single group

Professor MAURIZIO BADIANI
Objectives SYNTHETIC DESCRIPTION
The plant cell. Carbohydrates. Lipids. Amino-acids, peptides, and proteins. Enzymes. Metabolism. Plant-water relationships. Solutes transport. The physiology of photosynthesis. Respiration. Vegetative and reproductive development. Plant hormones. Laboratory training on course topics.

FIRST CYCLE DUBLIN DESCRIPTOR "KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING"
To gain essential knowledge, integrated by practical laboratory work, on molecular, biochemical and physiological structures and mechanisms involved in the execution of the endogenous developmental program as well as in the interactions among forest trees and their biotic and abiotic environment

FIRST CYCLE DUBLIN DESCRIPTOR "APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING"
To develop the capacity of applying knowledge and understanding of the course themes in a manner that indicates a professional approach to work, and to have competences typically demonstrated through devising and sustaining arguments and solving problems.
FIRST CYCLE DUBLIN DESCRIPTOR "MAKING JUDGEMENTS"
To develop the ability to gather and interpret relevant data to inform judgements which include reflection on relevant scientific issues.

FIRST CYCLE DUBLIN DESCRIPTOR "COMMUNICATION SKILLS"
To develop the capacity of communicating information, ideas, problems and solutions to both non-specialist audiences.

FIRST CYCLE DUBLIN DESCRIPTOR "LEARNING SKILLS"
To developed those learning skills that are necessary to continue to undertake further study with a high degree of autonomy
Programme RECALLING THE STRUCTURE AND ORGANISATION OF THE PLANT CELL. Membrane systems (plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus), vacuole, peroxisomes, plastids, mitochondrion. The cell wall: composition, architecture, biosynthesis, growth and differentiation. Cytoskeleton.

RECALLING THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS. Composition and synthesis of nucleotides. Nuclear DNA replication. DNA recombination. Organellar DNA. DNA transcription. RNA features, functions and processing.

CARBOHYDRATES. Classification, properties and reactions. Mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides

LIPIDS. Classification. Fatty acids. Triacylglycerols. Membrane saponifying lipids Non-saponifying lipids. Liposomes and membranes.

AMINOACIDS, PEPTIDES, AND PROTEINS. Proteins functions. -aminoacids. Peptide bond. Proteins structures. Proteins classification and properties. Protein synthesis, assembly and degradation. Protein separation and purification.

ENZYMES. Metabolic roles of enzymes. Enzyme activity and selecivity. Enzyme reaction rates. General features of enzymatic catalysis. Enzyme kinetics.. Michaelis-Menten equation. Significance of the kinetic parameters KM and Vmax. Competitive, non competitive and incompetitive enzyme inhibition. pH and temperature effects on enzymatic catalysis. Catalytic mechanisms. Regulation of enzyme activity.

NATURAL PRODUCTS (SECONDARY METABOLITES). Terpenoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, chemical defence compounds (coumarins, stilbenes, styrylpirones, arylpirones)

PLANT-WATER RELATIONSHIPS. Water properties. Diffusion, mass flow, osmosis. Water potential. Long-range water transport. Water uptake by roots. Xylem structure and function. Xylematic transport: the cohesion/adhesion theory, root pressure, guttation. Transpiration and stomatal movements.

MINERAL NUTRIENTS AND SOLUTES TRANSPORT. Plant mineral nutrients and their uptake by roots. Solutes transport across membranes. Solute chemical potential. Passive and active transport. Secondary active transport. Channels, carriers, pumps. H+-ATPases in plants.

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS. The properties of light, photosynthetic pigments, structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. Electron transport and photo-phosphorylation. Carbon-linked phase of photosynthesis (“dark phase”). Synthesis of ATP: differences among chloroplasts and mitochondria. Activation and regulation of carbon metabolism in C3, C4 and CAM species. Physiological significance of photorespiration. Phloem transport physiology. Synthesis of starch and of saccharose.

RESPIRATION. Glycolysis and fermentation. The pentose phosphate pool. Transport systems specific for plant mitochondria and their importance for carbon metabolism. Respiration in the whole plant and in plant organs. Gluconeogenesis

ASSIMILATION OF MINERAL NUTRIENTS. Nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, cations, oxygen

VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. Embryogenesis. the apical meristem of the shoot. the apical meristem of the root. Vegetative organs. Senescence and programmed cell death.

PLANT RESPONSES TO LIGHT. Phytochromes. Responses to blue light.

PLANT HORMONES AND SIGNALLING SUBSTANCES. Indole-3-acetic acid. Gibberellins. Abscisic acid. Cytokinins. Ethylene. Brassinosteroids. Polyammines. Jasmonic acid. Salicylic acid: structure, transport, action mechanisms.

SIGNAL PERCEPTION AND TRANSDUCTION IN PLANTS (an overview)

REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT. The control of transition to flowering. Flower development. Formation of gametes. Germination of pollen. Fertilization. Seed formation, development and deposition of stored reserves. Embryo maturation and dessication. Seed germination

BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ABIOTIC STRESS. Oxidative stress. Water deficit. Salt stress. Heat stress and heat shock. Adaptation to cold and freezing stress. Flooding and oxygen deficit.

LABORATORY TRAINING ON COURSE TOPICS. Spectrophotometric assays of enzymatic activities. Chromatographic analysis of plant metabolites. Extraction, purification and electrophoretic separation of proteins and of nucleic acids from plant tissues. Measuring photosynthetic rates via infra-red gas analysis. In vivo measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence
Books ALBERTS, B., JOHNSON, A., LEWIS, J., RAFF, M., ROBERTS, K., WALTER, P. Biologia Molecolare della Cellula, 5a Ed., Zanichelli, Bologna, 2009. ISBN: 978-8808-20185-0

BROWN, T.A. Biotecnologie molecolari. Principi e tecniche. 2nd translation in italian on the 7th ed. of the book, Zanichelli, Bologna, 2017. ISBN: 9788808320964

BUCHANAN, B.B , GRUISSEM, W. , JONES R. L. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants, 2nd Edition. American Society of Plant Biologists, Wiley Blackwell, Chichester (UK), 2015. ISBN: 9780470714218

BUCHANAN, B.B , GRUISSEM, W. , JONES R. L. Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare delle Piante. Zanichelli, Bologna, 2003. ISBN: 978-8808-07771-4

EVERT, R.F., EICHHORN, S.E. La Biologia della Piante di Raven, 7° edizione, Zanichelli, Bologna, 2013. ISBN: 978-88-08-17504-5

MARSCHNER, P. Marschner's Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, 3rd Edition. Elsevier-Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2012. ISBN: 9780123849052

PINTON, R., COCUCCI, M., NANNIPIERI, P., TREVISAN, M. Fondamenti di Biochimica Agraria. Pàtron Editore, Bologna, 2016. ISBN: 978-88-555-3322-5

ROST, T.L., BARBOUR, M.G. STOCKING, C.R., MURPHY, T.M. Biologia delle Piante. Zanichelli, Bologna., 2008. ISBN: 978-8808-06655-8

SMITH, A.M., COUPLAND, G., DOLAN, L., HARBERD, N., JONES, J., MARTIN, C., SABLOWSKI, R., AMEY, A. Plant Biology. Garland Science, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, New York and Abingdon, 2010. ISBN: 978-0-8153-4025-6.

TAIZ, L., ZEIGER, E. Fisiologia Vegetale. Piccin Nuova Libraria, Padova, 2008. ISBN: 978-88- 299-1974-1

TAIZ, L., ZEIGER, E., MØLLER, I.M., MURPHY, A. Plant Physiology and Development, 6th Edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA, 2015. ISBN: 9781605353531
Traditional teaching method Yes
Distance teaching method No
Mandatory attendance No
Written examination evaluation Yes
Oral examination evaluation Yes
Aptitude test evaluation No
Project evaluation No
Internship evaluation No
Evaluation in itinere No
Practice Test No

Further information


Module: Chemistry of the Forest Floor

Degree course FOREST AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Curriculum Curriculum unico
Learnings UNICO
Academic Year 2018/2019
ECTS 6
Scientific Disciplinary Sector AGR/13
Year Second year
Time unit Second semester
Class hours 60
Educational activity Formative educational activities

Single group

Professor ADELE MARIA MUSCOLO
Objectives Pedogenesis: Soil as a triphase system: solid phase (primary and secondary minerals, organic matter), soil solution and telluric air: .Soil open system: Profile formation, alteration of primary minerals, organic matter transformations. Soil properties: physical properties, soil reactions (anion and cation exchange capacity, pH, water retention).
Anomalous soils: acid soil, calcareous, saline sodic
Interpretation of soil analysis

Programme INTRODUCTION TO THE SOIL CHEMISTRY.
Definition of soil. Horizons and profile. The lithologic matrix Silicates and non-silicates.
The INORGANIC CONSTITUENTS. Primary and secondary minerals. Clay minerals. Pauling's rules. Tetrahedral and octahedral coordination Tetrahedral and octahedral sheets. The phyllosilicates of the soil. Isomorphous replacement. Upload layer. Upload variable. Classification of phyllosilicates. 1:1 phyllosilicates: caolinitie and halloysite. 2:1 phyllosilicates: illite, momtmorillonite, vermiculite. Minerals of transition. 2:1:1 phyllosilicates: chlorites. Oxides. Degree of dispersion as a function of pH for oxides and phyllosilicates.
The ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS OF THE SOIL: Nature and origin of organic matter. Active and stabilized fractions Chemical characteristics of the humic fractions. Degradation processes. Properties of the organic substances and effects in the soil. Mineralization processes. Humification processes. Theories about humus formation. Turnover of the organic matter Humic acids, fulvic acids, Umine. Extraction and fractionation of humic substances.
Pedogenesis: equation of Jenny. Main processes of soil formation, decomposition of rocks. Alteration processes. Physical alteration. Chemical alteration: hydrolysis
hydration and dehydration, solubilization, oxidation, chelation. Mobility of the ions. Factors that control the resistance to decomposition of the minerals.
THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL Temperature and specific heat
WATER CONTENT OF SOIL Water potential in the soil,. Water retention. Hydraulic conductivity of saturated and unsaturated soil. Infiltration rate. Field capacity Water available and easily usable water. Porosity and the pore size distribution. Stability and size distribution of aggregates
CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY: Cation Exchange capacity. Effect of cation concentrations. Reversibility of the exchange. Coefficient of selectivity. Relationship between the exchange and ion concentrations.. Affinity of the cations for the exchanger. Upload and hydration energy of the ions. Lyotropic series.. Relationship between ESP and SAR.
CHEMIO-ADSORBIMENTO AND PRECIPITATION OF INORGANIC IONS. Factors that
control the "sorption" of metal cations. Anion exchange capacity Adsorption specific and no-specific adsorption Fixation of phosphate.
THE pH AND THE REACTION OF THE SOIL. Forms of acidity. The buffering capacity of soils. Redox soil potential: submerged soils. Types, chemical processes and conditions. The nutrients - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, calcium, magnesium,
microelements. Quantity and forms in the soil. Solubilisation and immobilization.
Books Violante P. Chimica del suolo e della nutrizione delle piante. 2 edizione. Ed agricole, 2002 Sequi P. Chimica del Suolo. Patron, 1993
Per approfondimenti: McBride M.B, Environmental Chemistry of Soils, Oxford University Press,1994.
Sposito G., The chemistry of soils, Oxford Press.1989
Sumner M. E. Handbook of Soil Science, CRC Press,2000.

Traditional teaching method Yes
Distance teaching method No
Mandatory attendance No
Written examination evaluation No
Oral examination evaluation Yes
Aptitude test evaluation No
Project evaluation No
Internship evaluation No
Evaluation in itinere Yes
Practice Test No

Further information

No document in this course

Office hours list:

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Office hours by: Adele Maria Muscolo
Mercoledi 10-12; Giovedi 14.30-16.30
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