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# HYDRAULICS II

 Degree course Civil Engineering Curriculum IDRAULICA Learnings Orientamento unico Academic Year 2014/2015 ECTS 6 Scientific Disciplinary Sector ICAR/01 Year Second year Time unit Second semester Class hours 48 Educational activity Formative educational activities

## Single group

 Professor VINCENZO FIAMMA Objectives The course aims to provide engineering students thorough lessons on problems related to currents under pressure and with free surface, and the basics of hydraulic modeling. Moreover, the elements for the design of structures under the action of liquids and of pipelines for conveying them in conditions of permanent and varied motion. The course includes, in addition to theoretical class, a few hours of exercise for the application of theoretical concepts to real problems that can be of practical interest for civil engineers. Programme Properties of fluids and hydrostatic Definition of liquid. Hydraulics quantities: definitions. Density and specific gravity. Compressibility. Viscosity. Flow regimes. Hydrostatic stress within liquids. Unspecified hydrostatics equation. Piezometric head. Measuring pressure instruments. Pressures on plane surfaces. Hydrostatic equation of global equilibrium. Pressures on curved surfaces. Equilibrium of submerged bodies. Stability of a floating body.Perfect liquids Velocity and acceleration. Characteristic elements of the fluid motion: trajectories, current lines. Types of movement. Euler equation. Euler equation tangent, normal and binormal to a point of the trajectory. Pressure distribution in the normal plane. Linear currents. Bernoulli's theorem: geometric and energetic interpretation of Bernoulli's theorem, application of Bernoulli's theorem to outflow processes. Power of a current. Extension of the Bernoulli theorem to a current. Equations of unsteady flow for perfect fluid. Problems of starting flow in a pipeline. Study of oscillations of a piezometric well. Global equilibrium equations in dynamic conditions. Dynamic actions on Pelton turbines. Weirs: Bazin weir, overflowing dam; weir in big wall.Hydraulic models Dimensional Analysis: Buckingham theorem and its applications. Notes on hydraulic models. Reynolds similarity. Froude similarity.Real fluids Navier-Stokes equation. Global equilibrium equation for a real fluid. Application of the Navier-Stokes equation to the laminar flow: motion between two plates; motion in a circular conduct; motion in a large rectangular section. The turbulent motion: the experience of Reynolds; global equilibrium equation for the turbulent flow; genesis of the turbulent tensions; velocity distribution in the circular sections; resistance index and its expressions for smooth tube and rough tube; diagrams of velocity as a function of characteristic parameters of the turbulent motion; formula of Colebrook; Moody diagram; design and testing problems solved with the Moody diagram and with the auxiliary curves; dependence of the pressure drop per unit length of pipeline by the diameter and on the hydraulic discharge for different types of motion; practical formulas for the turbulent motion. Ground water flow Ground water flow: the experience of Darcy-Ritter, generalized Darcy-Ritter's law; flows in artesian and phreatic groundwater.Unsteady flow Hydroelectric plants. Water hammer: description of the phenomenon; equation of motion, continuity equation, general integrals of water hammer; connected equations; determination of the overload at the shutter or in a generic section; formula of Allievi-Michaud.Flow on open channels Flow on open channels: general overview. The uniform flow. Energy characteristics of the current in a section. Channels with weak and strong slope. Kinematics of the two movements. Currents in permanent motion; profiles of the free surface; hydraulic jump. Practical examples. Books D. Citrini e G. Noseda, Idraulica, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana Milano.Marchi - Rubatta. Meccanica dei Fluidi, Ed. UTET. Traditional teaching method Yes Distance teaching method No Mandatory attendance No Written examination evaluation No Oral examination evaluation Yes Aptitude test evaluation No Project evaluation Yes Internship evaluation No Evaluation in itinere No Practice Test No

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