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Degree course Environmental Enginnering
Learnings PS.LM35.IND012.2013-2014
Academic Year 2016/2017
Scientific Disciplinary Sector ICAR/02
Year Second year
Time unit Second semester
Class hours 48
Educational activity Formative educational activities

Single group

Objectives The course of River Engineering and Hydroelectric Plants analyses thoroughly the basic knowledge of the course of Hydraulics, increasing the theoretical-practical aspects in the view of the engineer. The main themes of the course are flow on open channels and the unsteady flow in the current pressure (water hammer). Due to the importance of laboratory experimentation, the course is provided for the lessons and exercises related to physical and numerical modeling of hydraulic phenomena (Similarity and Models). The course will address the hydraulic dimensioning of open bridle or selective and will be described and analyzed Hydroelectric plants high head and small capacityThe course includes, in addition to theoretical class, a few hours of exercise for the application of theoretical concepts to real problems that can be of practical interest for civil engineers.
Programme Properties of fluids and hydrostatic
Definition of liquid. Hydraulics quantities: definitions. Density and specific gravity. Compressibility. Viscosity. Flow regimes. Hydrostatic stress within liquids. Unspecified hydrostatics equation. Piezometric head. Measuring pressure instruments. Pressures on plane surfaces. Hydrostatic equation of global equilibrium. Pressures on curved surfaces. Equilibrium of submerged bodies. Stability of a floating body.

Perfect liquids
Velocity and acceleration. Characteristic elements of the fluid motion: trajectories, current lines. Types of movement. Euler equation. Euler equation tangent, normal and binormal to a point of the trajectory. Pressure distribution in the normal plane. Linear currents. Bernoulli's theorem: geometric and energetic interpretation of Bernoulli's theorem, application of Bernoulli's theorem to outflow processes. Power of a current. Extension of the Bernoulli theorem to a current. Equations of unsteady flow for perfect fluid. Problems of starting flow in a pipeline. Study of oscillations of a piezometric well. Global equilibrium equations in dynamic conditions. Dynamic actions on Pelton turbines. Weirs: Bazin weir, overflowing dam; weir in big wall.

Hydraulic models
Dimensional Analysis: Buckingham theorem and its applications. Notes on hydraulic models. Reynolds similarity. Froude similarity.

Real fluids
Navier-Stokes equation. Global equilibrium equation for a real fluid. Application of the Navier-Stokes equation to the laminar flow: motion between two plates; motion in a circular conduct; motion in a large rectangular section. The turbulent motion: the experience of Reynolds; global equilibrium equation for the turbulent flow; genesis of the turbulent tensions; velocity distribution in the circular sections; resistance index and its expressions for smooth tube and rough tube; diagrams of velocity as a function of characteristic parameters of the turbulent motion; formula of Colebrook; Moody diagram; design and testing problems solved with the Moody diagram and with the auxiliary curves; dependence of the pressure drop per unit length of pipeline by the diameter and on the hydraulic discharge for different types of motion; practical formulas for the turbulent motion.

Unsteady flow
Hydroelectric plants. Water hammer: description of the phenomenon; equation of motion, continuity equation, general integrals of water hammer; connected equations; determination of the overload at the shutter or in a generic section; formula of Allievi-Michaud.

Flow on open channels
Flow on open channels: general overview. The uniform flow. Energy characteristics of the current in a section. Channels with weak and strong slope. Kinematics of the two movements. Currents in permanent motion; profiles of the free surface; hydraulic jump. Practical examples.
D. Citrini e G. Noseda, Idraulica, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana Milano.
Marchi - Rubatta. Meccanica dei Fluidi, Ed. UTET.
FERRO V., La sistemazione dei bacini idrografici. McGraw-Hill..
Traditional teaching method Yes
Distance teaching method No
Mandatory attendance No
Written examination evaluation No
Oral examination evaluation Yes
Aptitude test evaluation No
Project evaluation No
Internship evaluation No
Evaluation in itinere No
Practice Test No

Further information

No document in this course
No news posted
No class timetable posted
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