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Degree course Environmental Enginnering
Learnings Orientamento unico
Academic Year 2016/2017
Scientific Disciplinary Sector ICAR/05
Year First year
Time unit First semester
Class hours 48
Educational activity Formative educational activities

Single group

Objectives The course deals will the analysis of transport networks and their performances due to the interactions among the several transport elements. Transport systems are the results of the interactions among several elements that affect one another both in both direct and indirect ways. The course wants to provide students with specific knowledge on the simulation, analysis and planning of transport systems by modeling transport demand and transport supply.
Programme Evaluation method:
Written test made by theoretical and practical questions. Questions will concern the course contents, as described in the detailed program. The goal of the written test is to evaluate students’ knowledge and their ability to apply such knowledge in a working environment by using a system approach able to link the functional design of a single transport element to the transport network analysis and the produced effects.

The concept of transport system – The supply and demand - The topological representation of transport supply - graphs - basic properties of graphs - General information on link cost functions and transport networks
The concept of path - The link-path matrix - Forward star - link and path costs - congested and not, separable and not cost functions
The transport demand - spatial and temporal variability - Study area and zoning - internal and external centroids - Demand- cost relationship and demand elasticity - demand-stage models - concept of link and path traffic flow - state variables: link and path traffic flows, link and path travel costs
Random utility theory - initial hypotheses - systematic and random residual utilities - Common errors - the relevant variables - deterministic and stochastic models - choice probability
The logit model – main properties of the logit model - stability of the Gumble variable with respect to the maximization - Effects of the hypothesis of independence of the residuals on the calculation of the choice probabilities - the IIA property - Nested-Logit model - grouping of similar alternatives - structure of the choice tree and identification of characteristic parameters - the variance / covariance matrix for a Nested-Logit model - Probit model - General characteristics - the structure of the variance-covariance matrix - Estimated Probit choice probability - Monte Carlo Method and generation of random residuals
Trip generation sub-model – Estimation of the average emission coefficient - deterministic and stochastic approach - specification of a trip frequency stochastic model - trip distribution sub-model - The relevant variables - gravitational models - stochastic models: Approach by area and by elementary destination
Mode choice sub-model - choice alternatives - the relevant variables - independent and dependent alternatives and identification of the choice model - generic and specific variables - Path choice sub-model - choice set generation - alternative path generation criteria - path overlap problems in urban areas - behavioral route choice models - logit model and application effectiveness- C-logit and probit models
Supply / demand Interaction - formalization of the assignment model - assumptions for cost functions and path choice models - assignment model classification - models with elastic and constant demand - network load models - equilibrium and dynamic process models - least-cost path search - Belmann condition and Dijkstra's algorithm - network load assignment with deterministic path choice model - AoN algorithm - network load assignment with stochastic path choice model - implicit or explicit path enumeration - Probit path choice model and Monte Carlo algorithm – Equilibrium assignment problem - fixed-point models - formalization of the Deterministic User equilibrium (DUE) problem - Variational Inequality and equivalent optimization problem - existence and uniqueness conditions of DUE solutions - Frank-Wolfe algorithm to solve a DUE problem - Stochastic User Equilibrium (SUE) problem - existence and uniqueness conditions of SUE solutions - Formulation of an equivalent optimization problem to solve a SUE problem - MSA algorithm - congruence between algorithm solution and SUE problem
RP and SP sample surveys - simple-random sampling - survey cards and sampling type - RP data and their use - demand direct estimation - demand sample estimation - simple and stratified random sampling - demand estimator – confidence limits - calibration of demand models - likelihood function - maximum likelihood method for estimating unknown parameters - gradient algorithm - validation of demand models - formal and informal tests – t-Student test and goodness-of-fit –

Planning steps - identification of the study system - Identification of traffic areas by using data from Census particles - internal centroids - positioning of external centroids - graph of individual transport and cost functions by link type - link cost functions for urban and suburban roads - Doherty function for signalized intersections - examples - Representation of transit supply – origin/destination trip matrix - inside, exchange and crossing demand - application examples – trip demand generation for each traffic zone - distribution percentage estimation - origin / destination demand - examples of origin / destination demand estimation for a test case - graph of the private transport network for a real system – minimum-layout network - transit network extraction from a real system - examples of transport supply graphs - Djikstra algorithm for searching minimum cost paths - application to a test case - application of the mode choice model to a test case – examples of AoN and SNL assignment procedures
Books Apart from lesson notes autonomously written by students, the following books are suggested:

Cascetta E. (2006) “Modelli per i Sistemi di Trasporto. Teoria ed applicazioni“, UTET, Italia.
Di Gangi M., Postorino M.N. (2005) "Modelli e procedure per l'analisi dei sistemi di trasporto : esercizi ed applicazioni", FrancoAngeli, Italia.

For more interested students:
Postorino M.N. (2009).“Introduzione alla pianificazione del sistema di trasporto aereo”, FrancoAngeli.
Cascetta E. (2001) “Transportation systems engineering: theory and methods”, Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Traditional teaching method Yes
Distance teaching method No
Mandatory attendance Yes
Written examination evaluation Yes
Oral examination evaluation No
Aptitude test evaluation No
Project evaluation No
Internship evaluation No
Evaluation in itinere No
Practice Test No

Further information

Description Document
programma e testi di riferimento (programma) Document
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